frequently asked questions.

The company strives to provide current accurate and transparent information to stakeholders. The data and opinions provided in this Q&A are based on the best information available to the company at this time. The company reserves the right to update, amend, or remove the information at any time.


Injection into the subsurface is one of the primary means of disposing of liquid wastes in the United States. More than 850,000 injection wells are known to be in operation, disposing of millions of gallons of hazardous and nonhazardous fluid wastes.

Currently, almost all the CO2 is injected for oil recovery. There are roughly 150,000 such wells, operating safely since 1960’s.

In Indiana, there are 18,000 injection wells, and in Illinois, there are 45,000 injection wells.

  • In 1974, with the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Federal government took an active role in underground injection control. In response to the 1974 Act, EPA promulgated the UIC regulations in 1980. Since 1980, more than 150 Federal Register notices have been published regarding UIC, including additional regulations, amended regulations, explanations of procedures, and guidance.
  • Safe Drinking Water Act was significantly amended two times since 1974: in 1986 and 1996. In addition, there were two sets of minor amendments that affected the UIC program in 1977 and 1980. The UIC program was EPA’s major tool to protect ground water until the 1986 Amendments.
  • In 1986, Congress created a larger Federal role in the protection of all ground water from sources other than underground injection.

The definition of an underground source of drinking water (USDW) is codified in 40 CFR 146.3. The USDW definition ensures that potential sources of drinking water are protected as stringently as those sources currently used for drinking water. Application of a quality-based ground water standard rather than a usage-based standard provides for both protection of the ground water resource and public health. Ground water containing between 3,000 and 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) is not suitable for human consumption.

The Total Dissolved solid level in the target strata was measured at 34,250 mg/L TDS.

Yes, 50 miles NW from our site, Cabot Oil has been injecting safely for over 50 years. They inject wastes produced in the chemical manufacturing process. There have been no known safety or water contamination issues.

The US has over 50 years of commercial experience safely capturing, transporting, reusing, and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) at large-scale, with no loss of life or significant environmental incidents since projects began in the 1970s.

The primary reason is corrosion of the wells.


Wabash Valley Resources has designed the injection wells using materials specifically designed for CO2 service.  These include using high chrome steel and specialty cement.  In addition to the

very specialized materials of construction, WVR is required by the draft EPA permit to perform both continuous and periodic monitoring and testing of the wells to ensure that at no time is the mechanical integrity of the well compromised.

The wells will have control systems that are designed to continuously monitor the wellhead instrumentation for predetermined conditions or deviations in pressure or temperature that require the wellhead to be shut down. If alarm or shutdown conditions are detected, the automated block valve at the wellhead will be closed and operations staff will be notified simultaneously of the shut-in condition.

  1. Methane is a significantly more toxic gas than CO2. Methane is highly combustible, while CO2 is inert, non-flammable and non-toxic.
  2. Due to its structure, Methane traps more heat in the atmosphere per molecule than CO2, making it 80 times more harmful than CO2 as a greenhouse gas.
  1. CO2 is considered a greenhouse gas that is warming our planet. Normally, CO2 is released into the air from industrial processes. However, due to the intense focus on warming the planet, it is now advisable to store CO2 just like we have stored Methane gas safely for several decades.
  2. EPA has now mandated that power plants capture and store the CO2 emissions underground. In the future, almost all industrial facilities will have to capture and store CO2.
  1. Clarification of property ownership. For the first time in Indiana, it was clarified that the subsurface space (also known as “pore space”) is owned by the property owner and not the mineral rights owner. This gives the property owners an economic benefit that did not exist before.
  2. Notification Requirements. Ensures notification to property owners. For the first time, a company in Indiana is required to notify the property owners. Prior to this, none of the 18,000 injection wells had any requirement to notify the property owners. 
  3. Compensation Offer. Previously, Indiana state law did not mandate injection well operators to make any payment to the property owners for the subsurface migration of fluids injected. SB 451 mandates that a written offer of compensation be made to the property owners for subsurface migration of injected fluids. The offer of compensation is based on a reference published by Purdue University. The payments are annual for the duration of the project.

No, there is no injury or property damage liability protection for WVR. WVR will have potential liability in the event of property damage or injury to a person or an animal caused by WVR’s operations.

No, the legislature made it clear that there is no limit on monetary recovery by the water utility. WVR is potentially liable for any remediation action related to the damage caused by WVR’s operations.

It is anticipated that WVR will commence injection in 2026 and cease in 2038.

Based on the reference formula in SB 451, the annual payments are projected to be an average of $150/acre per year over the duration of the project. This payment will commence when the CO2 migrates under the property and continue until the project is completed and injection is ceased.

Approximately 11 miles.

Yes. However, WVR has no current plans to utilize eminent domain. WVR strongly prefers to negotiate with property owners directly.


CCS is a technology that involves capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial processes and power plants before they are released into the atmosphere. The captured CO2 is then transported and stored in geological formations deep underground to prevent its release into the atmosphere.

CCS is important because it significantly reduces CO2 emissions from large industrial sources. It can play a crucial role in mitigating climate change by helping to limit global temperature rise and achieve emissions reduction goals.

The benefits of CCS include a significant reduction of CO2 emissions, the potential to use fossil fuels in a transitional phase towards cleaner energy sources, the preservation of jobs and industries, and contributing to meeting climate goals.

CCS is often seen as a complementary technology to renewable energy sources, as it can help reduce emissions from existing industrial processes that are challenging to decarbonize.

CCS is not the same as “fracking”. As described in the EPA draft permit, the maximum injection pressure shall not exceed 90% of the fracture pressure of the targeted injection zone, pursuant to 40 CFR 146.88(a). In turn, this ensures that the injection pressure would not cause the movement of injection or formation fluids into the uppermost underground source of drinking water (USDW) as prohibited by 40 CFR 146.86(a).

The maximum allowable injection pressure is limited by EPA to ensure that at no point the stability or integrity of the formation is threatened. The injection well will be equipped with automated shutdowns associated with this pressure indication.

The confining layer is continuous across the entire area of sequestration. The EPA evaluates and ensures the confining layer is continuous across the entire region as part of the UIC Class VI permitting process.

There is a confining layer above and below the injection zone. These layers are over a thousand feet thick, and their quality is verified by the EPA as part of the UIC Class VI permitting process.

Earthquakes within the region originate much deeper (15-20,000 feet deep) than the targeted injection zone.  Since injection pressure is limited to less than the fracture pressure, geologists don’t anticipate induced seismic activity from the injection and storage of CO2.

In the event of an earthquake, there is no impact on the sequestered CO2 or the injection well.  Per the draft permit, there are specific steps that must be taken to verify the integrity and safety of the injection well after seismic activity is recorded.


Materials will be selected and used based on their compatibility with CO2.  The main casing will be made of high chrome alloy designed to withstand the CO2, temperature, and pressure of the well service.

Annual non-destructive testing will be conducted by a third party.  These services include running instrumented devices the length of the well that can detect anomalies and or damage and inform WVR of the need to repair or replace the well casing. The wells will be maintained to the specifications outlined in the final issued EPA permit.

The Injection wells will be monitored 24/7 by the control system.  Alarms and automatic shutdowns will be implemented and verified for functionality before any injection occurs.

The draft permits only allow CO2 produced by WVR at the ammonia facility in West Terre Haute, IN to be sequestered in these wells.


The U.S. has the most CO2 Pipelines in the world. There are approximately 5,150 miles of CO2 pipelines operating in the U.S. These pipelines are regulated and reported to PHMSA. The vast majority, if not all, of these existing CO2 pipelines are driven by the use of CO2 for storage in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) wells, utilizing and storing CO2 in a supercritical state. The nature of CO2 requires pipeline injection as a supercritical fluid.

Approximately 11 miles.

The pipeline will be constructed from 8-inch heavy wall Carbon Steel. Since no moisture is contained in the CO2 stream, Carbon Steel is the correct metallurgy for pipeline use.

The pipeline will be a minimum 5 feet depth of cover from the top of the pipe per industry best practices for pipelines. Other pipeline crossings require directional boring under the existing pipelines.

This is a single pipeline that branches at the first well head to run to the second well head. Flows between the two well heads will be balanced with automated control valves.

Annual non-destructive testing will be conducted with smart PIG devices that will be run the length of the pipeline. Smart PIGs can detect leaks, erosion, corrosion, metal loss, pitting, weld anomalies and gather data on bends, curves, and temperature of the pipeline.  Anomalies will be repaired when they are detected. Additionally, flows will be monitored on the source and destination locations and if the measured flows don’t match then the pipeline will be shutdown and inspected for possible leaks.

Three separate sources of power would have to fail in order to lose indication at the well head. Loss of power at the well head is not an emergency, but personnel would be dispatched immediately to shut down the injection until power could be restored. WVR control room operators will be notified immediately upon a loss of power.  Preventive maintenance and testing will be performed on uninterruptable power supplies and generators to ensure they are ready to be used if local power is lost.

Yes, the WVR distributed control system scans every input every second and determines if an alarm or automatic response is required.  Control room operators monitor the facility, pipeline, and well heads at all times.